[Translation] The use of crampons and technology hail "developed" technology

Using "evolved" techniques for crampons and tools.

Using crampons and technology hail "developed" technology

Translator: Hua Zi

Translator's Note: (Originally in http://translator's translation of the original text as much as possible, this article is for reference only. If you need to reprint, please fully reproduced and indicate the original source, so that we can better understand this article! This is In the first section of the sixth part of the foreign alpine guidance textbooks, the entire article will be translated and uploaded. If not translated properly, please put it forward.)


Small weather wall offers worktable forms : icicles, cauliflower, mushroom, air pockets and fragile ice.


The axes often only hold when pulled on downwards using traction. Anchor the tools in these forms being careful not to plant them but rather hook them or wedge them so not to destroy the ice.

The experience on this terrain brought favor the evolution of the equipment and gave birth to tools with sharply bent shafts, which induce especially when climbing cauliflower ice, to obtain an optimal placement when compared to traditional shafts where the shaft is more of an obstacle initation a good anchor (fig.83).


There are some special shapes of small ice walls: icicles, broccoli-shaped ice, mushroom-shaped ice, empty bags, and friable ice.


Careful anchoring of these technical tools on these shapes of the ice wall is not to place them in the ice wall, but instead to damage the ice surface, it is best to hook and wedge.

Hail often only acts as a pull when pulling down.

Experience in these terrains has led to the development of equipment and the production of sharp crankshaft tools. When climbing cauliflower-shaped ice, crankshaft tools are more likely to get the desired anchor point than traditional straight shank tools (Figure 83).

When climbing icicles, the axe should be placed by taking little short swings coming from the wrist and not the shoulders or the arms in such that a small hole is made in which the blade is then hooked. Precise moves rather than a traditional swing.

It is necessary to practice a lot in order to obtain precision a feeling for the hold of the tools. On very thin ice or on fragile, thin structures, it may be difficult or even impossible to place or hook both tools. It is possible to hook one pick on the head of the other which allows one to use the strength of both arms to obtaining a higher tool placement.

When climbing a vertical icicle, the crankshaft hail can be anchored by a small hole with a hooked blade just by swinging the wrist without the need to use the shoulders and arms as before. Generally speaking, this terrain is better than traditional ice. Needs smaller and more precise actions.

In order to find the feelings of holding a hail and grasp the precise movements, practice is necessary. In the very thin or fragile terrain of the ice wall, it is almost impossible

In this way, it is necessary to hook a hail on the top and pull it up with his arms in order to obtain an ideal high point.

Similar, crampons have evolved as well, allowed them to be used on these types of ice which is quite different from that for them they traditionally used, for example : kicking straight on with the foot in order for the front points to penetrate.

The job of the guide or alpine waterline instructor is to progressively bring the student to use his feet better and with more precision. The harder grades due to to steepness but above all quality of the ice, requires using crampon techniques similar to those used when climbing with Rock shoes. The four front points take on a similar importance as it is often necessary to place them rather than kick them. The inside and outside points are also very important when placing ones weight on the feet.

Similarly, the crampons are quite different from conventional ones and have been developed so that they can be used on such terrains. For example, crampons with front teeth make it possible to kick ice vertically through the ice wall.

The task of the increasing number of guides and alpine climbing instructors is to allow the students to use their feet better and more precisely. Higher difficulty levels mean more ruggedness.

But first and foremost is the quality of ice, as it may require skills similar to the use of crampons like climbing shoes. The four front teeth of the crampons bear the same important functions as climbing shoes. Sometimes how to place them better than how to kick them They are even more necessary. Internal and external teeth are very important when the entire person's weight is on the feet.

Lifting the foot onto vague terrain and using the points differently allow one to pull with crampon rather than simply push.

Over time these new possibilities have allowed one to be sure even on fragile failed structures, they require as do the tools, precision and delicateness. On particularly fragile ice, a simple kick of the foot a bit to muscled can lead to the entire structure tumbling Down.

The crampon can also be used for counter balance or by hooking with the heel behind icicles or in holes in the ice. When used for counter balance, the foot only pushes against the ice with the side of the crampons; when hooking, a better hook Is possible when using heel points (spurs) (fig.84).

Pointing a foot to an unfamiliar foot point and using a different tooth point sometimes makes a traction action with crampons rather than simply pushing it forward.

Over time, it has become possible that some of the fragile and difficult geographical structures in the past are no longer difficult. They need more precision and fluency in the use of technical tools. In a particularly fragile ice area, sometimes a small ice kick can result in the collapse of the entire ice structure.

The crampons are sometimes used as anti-equilibrium or hooked on the icicle with the heel of the foot or placed in the hole in the ice. When anti-equilibrium is used, the feet only use the same side of the cramp on the ice, and when using the hook, the point on the heel is a good hook (stimulus) (Figure 84).

It is also possible to hook using the points under the foot by opening the knee towards the side and pulling the hips into the ice.

General speaking, it is by continuous practice that the student is able to improve and adapt to the diverse conditions that difficult ice can offers.

The exercise that allows one to obtain a lot of confidence when using crampons, is by climbing (on a top rope) on ice that has many different shapes and forms without using the axes, the hands using only ice holds. Try to count the number Of swings one takes the axes and try to progressively reduce them in order to increase the feeling and the quality of the placement.

Sometimes it is possible to hook the hips to the ice by using the knees' motion to catch the feet. In general, the continuous training of trainees enables them to improve and create difficult terrain with various changes. Do not worry, the hand is just leaning on the ice wall, climbing with only crampons (top rope), this continuous training can give people more confidence. Try to count the number of times you play, and then gradually reduce the number of it, a lot of experience with your feelings and choose a better point.

Progressing using a basic "triangle".

Use basic "triangular balance" to advance

Translator: Hua Zi

Translator's Note: (Originally in http://translator's translation of the original text as much as possible, this article is for reference only. If you need to reprint, please fully reproduced and indicate the original source, so that we can better understand this article! This is In the second section of the sixth chapter of the foreign alpine guidance textbook, the whole article will be translated and uploaded. If the translation is not appropriate, please put it forward.)


Short length of rope approx. 75/80° on top rope.


From the basic balanced position of the triangle (fig.85),

The the the hips and hang the chest from the highest arm (principal arm), lift the feet using three short steps the first in a plumb line under the highest axe, move up on each leg so that it is straight until one is again in a New triangle position, the face at the height of the head of the axe.

Make these moves fluidly always put the hips over the weighted foot. Do not interrupt the sequence until one has come back to the basic balanced position (fig.86 to 89).

Only now at this moment, remove the lower tool and place it higher and a bit to the side of the other tool (fig.90).

Take two steps sideways in order to come back to the original position of the basic triangle (fig.91 to 93).


75/80 degree top rope, short pitch


Starting from a stable triangle point (figure 85), lower the center of gravity of the buttock, hold the arm with the highest point (forced arm), and lift the foot with a three-foot step.

It must be on the vertical line of the highest cymbal, straight up until the new triangle balance point, toward the height of the gimmick.

Do not hesitate to move in an instant, until you return to a new balance (Figure 86-89).

Only at this moment can you move the lower hail to a higher position, but do not be too far away from the other hail (Figure 90), and take two steps toward the edge to return to the original triangle balance point (Figure 91-93).


Moving the feet without having correctly centered oneself.


If the hips are not transferred true, increase the size of the rocking of the hips by exaggerating the moves.

The first step is not centered or too long, which results in a jerky move and excessive pulling on the axe.

The second tool is placed at the same height as the first.


The feet are not high enough. The axe is not placed in a position which allows one to use the full extension of the arm.


The the first step which should be short and allows one to start without using too much energy, take bigger second and third steps. The swinging movement from the arm should be done with the arm almost extended.

The axe is placed by hyper extending which doesnt allow one to verify the placement. This position does not allow one to remove the axe, the body is stuck against the wall and already pulling on the tool.

The tools are placed too far apart (fig.94) or in the same vertical axis (fig.95).


When you move your feet, your center of gravity is not within the triangle.


If the hips are not moving enough, you can exaggerate the movements of your squats.

The first is that the shift is not centered or overdone. The result will be a hurry and excessive pull.

The second is that the height of the scorpion was the same as the original.


The height of the feet is not enough and you cannot reach where you can reach with your arms fully extended.


The first step is not to force, but smaller, and the second and third steps are bigger. This kind of action can be stretched.

If you squat too much (arms stretch too long) then you can't test your position right, at this point you can't move 镐, then you're on the wall, you can only continue to pull镐.

镐 镐 太 太 太 too far (Figure 94) and two 镐 in the same vertical line (Figure 95)

In each case progressing will be perturbed both in smoothness and balance.

For other general errors see the errors of exercise # 1 - level 5

Favorable note for progression using the basic triangle :

在first insight this technique can seem more difficult to use, and above all more tiring physically (pulling on only one tool instead of two). However it should be considered that the main reason for tired comes primarily from the number of placements and The tools. With the triangle technique the number of swings is cut in half. additional, from a safety point of view, having the tools located at different heights doesnt have the same pullout effect on the ice,, avoiding the danger of having ice plates Break off, which in certain cases can sheer off and cause the climber to fall.

Every situation will make your movements smooth and balanced.

For other general errors, see Practice Error # 1 - level 5

To use the basic trigonometry to advance is to promote:

At first, this technique seems to be difficult to use. It is mainly because it is too easy to make people tired (because it is pulling a skeleton rather than the original two).

In any case, the main reason why people are tired from the number of moves and squats is to pay attention.

The number of wieldings using triangular techniques can be reduced by half. In addition, by placing a cockroach from a visible point of safety at the same time and not having the same height and the ice surface is subjected to different pulling forces, the risk of ice-crossing can be avoided. This risk may be Causes your preference to cause a slip.

"Evolved" progression using the triangle.

Using the developed triangular balance process

Translator: Hua Zi

Translator's Note: (Originally in http://translator's translation of the original text as much as possible, this article is for reference only. If you need to reprint, please fully reproduced and indicate the original source, so that we can better understand this article! This is In the third section of the sixth chapter of the foreign alpine guidance textbooks, I will upload the entire article one by one. If the translation is not appropriate, please put it forward.)


Short length of rope approx. 75/80° on top rope.


Lifting the feet by taking steps (the first foot moved should be the One opposite the side of the highest tool), returning sinces to the starting position (fig.96 to 101).

Using this type of progression one does not return to the basic balanced position, (in a triangle) arm extended.

The traditional method (seeing before in the proceeding exercises, moving the lower limbs should be proceeded by displacing the hips, and followed with as much smoothness as possible. using this method, even very steep pitches can be climbed quickly and without excessive fatigue. Axes at the same height) requires a greater number of swings and a greater physical demand.


When it is difficult to position ones feet in a triangle, it is interesting to use the corresponding foot and principal hand (higher) only for balance. In this case the final position is not actually the out of balance triangle so to speak, because Effective weight supporting parts are numbered of two : the highest arm and the opposite leg, the other leg is used only for balance.

The center of gravity is obtained by the weight supporting foot (placed crampon) and balance is obtained by the axis between the arm, hips and leg (fig.102 to 106).


75/80 degree top rope, short pitch


A triangle balance point has a range of working faces. From this point onwards, the other point is slightly higher than the first point on the side, trying to improve the point (the first leg moves the highest The relative orientation of the roots, and then back to a starting point (Figure 96-101)

As with the previous exercise, the movement of the lower limbs is also performed by the movement of the hips, and the process should be as smooth as possible. With this method, the steps are coherent and large, climbing fast and not overworking. The traditional method (at the same height) requires more ice-making times and physical strength.


When it is difficult to place a foot in a triangle balance, it is very interesting to maintain the balance with the corresponding foot and the arm that holds the body. Because the last point in this way is not actually triangular balance, because the effective weight is shared by two points. The highest hand point and the supporting leg, the other leg actually only plays a balancing role.

The center of gravity is obtained with the feet (with crampons) and the balance is obtained with arms, buttocks and legs (Figs. 102-106).

Descending using the "triangle".

4. Decreasing use of triangular balance.

Translator: Hua Zi

Translator's Note: (Originally in http://translator's translation of the original text as much as possible, this article is for reference only. If you need to reprint, please fully reproduced and indicate the original source, so that we can better understand this article! This is In the fourth section of the sixth chapter of the foreign alpine guidance textbooks, the entire article will be translated and uploaded. If not, do so.


Small ice wall three or four meters high approx. 70/75°.


Remove the higher position and the it at the height of the tool. As the other tool but not as deep since it is only used for balance (an intermediate placement) when descending the feet. Take three steps down in order to return to the starting balanced position of the triangle. Repeat the sequence by placing the tool that Was placed as an intermediate anchor.


When the tools are at the same height adopting a basic position (balanced on four points of support) without respecting the characteristics of the triangle position.


About three to four meters high small ice wall, 70/75 degrees


Start anchoring the hailstones from a basic point that is high on the shoulders and not used to. Two-step traversing is used, and the triangulation maintains its stability, locking the newly-placed hailstone.

A high-moving hailstone should be placed as high as another hailstone but not too deep. Therefore, when the distance between the feet is shortened, it is only used to balance (an intermediate position). Three steps downwards in order to return to the starting triangle balance point. Repeatedly waved ice and used the well-placed hail as an intermediate anchor point.


At the base point, the two hailstones are as high (four-point balance) without paying attention to the typical three-point balance.

Translator's Note: I don't understand this section very much. Please take a look and see if there is a problem with translation. Especially the red part

Author: Andy authorized outdoor information network article was originally published Rhino Outdoor Forum

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